Types of Subjects and Objects

    Single words

    Article + Noun

    Adjective(s) + Noun

    Noun + relative clause



    Noun clauses

    Dogs, water, Jeffery

    The teacher, a cat, some ice

    A big, black spider

    The man who lives there


    To sing

    Whatever you do


    As Subjects

    As Objects

    As Complements

    A dog is a man's best friend.

    Whatever you do is up to you.

    Skiing is believing.

    He ate ten apples.

    I like to eat.

    Mr. Trump is my friend.

    That is the man (whom) I told you about.

As Objects of prepositions*

    I don't approve of John.

    I don't approve of singing.

    I don't approve of John's singing.

    I don't approve of John's singing love songs.

    I don't approve of whatever John does.

    (the person)

    (the action)

    (gerund's subject is possessive)

    (S gerund Obj.)

    (noun clause)

*Be careful. Only gerunds (not infinitives) can be used as objects of prepositions.

    I look forward to Spring.

    I look forward to your party.

    I look forward to seeing you.

    Prep. + Object

    Prep. + Object

    Prep. + Gerund

    (In this case, "to" is a preposition, not part of an infinitive.)

    I want to see you.

    I hope to see you.

    I enjoy seeing you.

    I avoid seeing you.

    I'm interested in seeing you.

    I'm tired of seeing you.

    I am accustomed to seeing you.

    S V to V (infinitive)

    S V Ving (gerund)

    Prep + gerund